Production of X ray

Production of X-rays - Radiology Caf

The electrons strike the anode and the energy released via interaction with the anode atoms produces x-ray photons. These x-ray photons leave the x-ray tube through the window in an x-ray beam towards the patient X-ray production. X-rays are produced due to sudden deceleration of fast-moving electrons when they collide and interact with the target anode. In this process of deceleration, more than 99% of the electron energy is converted into heat and less than 1% of energy is converted into x-rays The Production of X Raysinvolves the bombardment of a thick target with energetic electrons Electrons undergo a complex sequence of collisions and scattering processes during the slowing down process which results in the production of

X-ray production Radiology Reference Article

There are four essential requirements for the production of x-rays: (1) a vacuum, (2) a source of electrons, (3) a target, and (4) a high potential difference (voltage) between the electron source and the target. FIG. 5-3 Simple x-ray tube. The anode is the positive end of the tube; the target is part of the anode Factors Affecting X-ray Production • The output of an x-ray tube is often described by the terms: - Quality : the penetrability of an x-ray beam - Quantity : the number of photons comprising the beam - Efficiency : the ratio of output energy as x-rays to input energy deposited by electrons 29. 30 X-rays are produced by interaction of accelerated electrons with tungsten nuclei within the tube anode Two types of radiation are generated: characteristic radiation and bremsstrahlung (braking) radiation Changing the X-ray machine current or voltage settings alters the properties of the X-ray bea Characteristic radiation • The wavelength of the x-rays produced are characteristic of the atom that has been ionised and is not changed by the kVp used( The applied kilovoltage must be high enough to excite the characteristic radiation) • The quantity of x-rays generated is proportional to the atomic nummber of the target material(Z), the square of the kilovoltage[(kVp)2] and the milliamperes of x-ray tube current(mA) • The quality(energy) of thee x-rays generated depends almost.

X-ray Production Radiology Ke

  1. Notice that the removal of the orbital electron established the environment for x-ray production and it is the expending of energy during the cascade that produces characteristic x-rays. FIGURE 6-2 Characteristic Interaction. A characteristic interaction event. Note that as outer-shell electrons fill inner-shell vacancies, their excess energy.
  2. Production of X-rays There are three common mechanisms for the production of X-rays: the acceleration of a charged particle, atomic transitions between discrete energy levels, and the radioactive decay of some atomic nuclei. Each mechanism leads to a characteristic spectrum of X-ray radiation
  3. The x-rays are produced by the sudden deflection or acceleration of the electron caused by the attractive force of the tungsten nucleus. The physics of x-ray production will be discussed later, in section 3.4. The x-ray beam emerges through a thin glass window in the tube envelope
  4. Producing an X-Ray Beam 1. Electrons Produced: Thermionic Emission A current is applied through the cathode filament, which heats up and releases electrons via thermionic emission
  5. Simply understood, the generation of X-rays occurs when electrons are accelerated under a potential difference and turned into electromagnetic radiation. An X-ray tube, with its respective components placed in a vacuum, and a generator, make up the basic components of X-ray production

X-rays are produced when high-speed projectile electrons collide with the X-ray tube target. The kinetic energy of projectile electrons transfers to target atoms. Approximately 99% of the energy converts into heat and only about 1% converts into X-rays. The production of X-rays comes from two interactions: bremsstrahlung and characteristic X-ray Tube 0 X-rays are produced in the x-ray tube, which is located in the x-ray tubehead. X-rays are generated when electrons from the filament cross the tube and interact with the target. The two main components of the x-ray tube are the cathode and the anode The x-ray are produced by theSudden deflection or acceleration of the electron caused by the attractiveForce of the tungstenThe anode;- the choice of tungsten as target due to ;-• the target must have high atomic number Z =74• high melting point 3,370 The focal spot becomes the source of the X-ray in an X-ray tube. The electron beam produced from an helical filament in a rectangular slot, covers rectangular area. That is focal spot is rectangular

Production of x rays - SlideShar

Multiple myeloma - WikEM

Basics of X-ray Physics - X-ray productio

About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new features Press Copyright Contact us Creators. Production of X-rays and Interactions of X-rays with Matter Goaz and Pharoah. Pages 11-20. Neill Serman Electrons traveling from the filament ( cathode) to the target (anode) convert a small percentage (1%) of their kinetic energy into x-ray photons by the formation of bremsstrahlung and characteristic radiation. A. BREMSSTRAHLUNG RADIATION. How are X-rays produced? This animation shows the function of the components of a modern X-ray tube.• Cathode Filament• Anode / Target• High Voltage Supply•.. x ray production by irradiation of matter by electrons and x rays. It is intended to familiarize you with the equipment and some of the basic physics of x rays. The rest is a menu of possible studies you can pursue as time permits. II. THEORY The sub-discipline of x-ray physics involves a certain amount of nomenclature and notation that you. The basic requirement for the production of X-rays are: (i) a source of electrons, (ii) effective means of accelerating the electrons and (iii) a target of suitable material of high atomic weight. The modern type of X-ray tube designed by Coolidge is shown in Fig. It consists of a highly evacuated hard glass bulb containing a cathode and an.

An X-ray, or X-radiation, is a penetrating form of high-energy electromagnetic radiation.Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 10 picometers to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (30×10 15 Hz to 30×10 18 Hz) and energies in the range 124 eV to 124 keV.X-ray wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and typically longer than those of. Define the expression efficiency of an x-ray tube, identify the factors that affect efficiency , and estimate its value for a diagnostic x-ray tube. State how the efficiency is related to the electron accelerating voltage (KV). State the relationship between x-ray production efficiency and the atomic number of the anode material An X-ray tube, with its respective components placed in a vacuum, and a generator, make up the basic components of X-ray production. Essential components of an X-ray tube include a cathode, and an anode separated a short distance from each other, a vacuum enclosure, and high voltage cables forming the X-ray generator attached to the cathode and. X ray > X ray: Production of X Rays ; Cite. X ray: Production of X Rays. An important source of X rays is synchrotron radiation. X rays are also produced in a highly evacuated glass bulb, called an X-ray tube, that contains essentially two electrodes—an anode made of platinum, tungsten, or another heavy metal of high melting point, and a cathode

Production of xrays - SlideShar

X-ray Tube X-rays for medical diagnostic procedures or for research purposes are produced in a standard way: by accelerating electrons with a high voltage and allowing them to collide with a metal target. X-rays are produced when the electrons are suddenly decelerated upon collision with the metal target; these x-rays are commonly called brehmsstrahlung or braking radiation DR RAKESH NALLAM • X-rays were discovered by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen (1895) • He named those rays as x rays --x as a symbol of the unknown • X rays are produced by energy conversion when a fast moving stream of electrons is suddenly decelerated in the target anode of an x ray tube. X-ray tube is made of Pyrex glass that encloses a vacuum containing two electrodes - anode and cathode

X-ray - Production and detection of X-rays Britannic

Bremsstrahlung production efficiency Overall x-ray production efficiency is small for thin targets Bremsstrahlung energy spectrum Maximum photon energy hv max =T 0 Duane and Hunt's law Thin target, T 0 << m 0 c2 • For thin target the radiant-energy spectrum is constant over the whole energy range • T 0 is the kinetic energy of the. In a normal X-ray machine, X-rays are produced by bombarding cathode rays on a radioactive material. When a high speed cathode ray falls on a radioactive material, there is an emission of electrons and energy. This energy is used in the X-ray machine X-Ray Production Mechanisms . Thermal Emission. Line Emission. In a hot gas atoms are moving around with the increased kinetic energy inherent in their temperature. This allows collisions between atoms to excite electrons into higher energy levels, farther away from the nucleus. Atoms can also have electrons excited to higher energy levels by. Principle of X-ray. Electromagnetic waves coming from planets and stars contain in addition to visible light, an infrared wave, short and long, radio waves, ultraviolet rays. X-rays and γ-rays which are used in many cases for analyzing spectrum. The difference between X-rays and ordinary light is their wavelengths

X-ray diffraction is based on constructive interference of monochromatic X-rays and a crystalline sample. Identification is achieved by comparing the X-ray diffraction pattern or diffractogram obtained from an unknown sample with an internationally recognized database containing reference patterns for more than 70,000 phases Pair production occurs when an electron and positron are created with the annihilation of the x-ray photon. Positrons are very short lived and disappear (positron annihilation) with the formation of two photons of 0.51 MeV energy. Pair production is of particular importance when high-energy photons pass through materials of a high atomic number X-rays are potentially hazardous. Hospital staff have a duty to use X-rays responsibly. This tutorial describes how X-rays are produced and how they interact with the body in forming a radiographic image. X-ray safety issues are briefly discussed. A basic knowledge of X-ray physics is complementary to knowledge of X-ray interpretation

Production of X-rays Radiology Ke

  1. The purpose is to review in a 4-part series: (i) the basic principles of x-ray production, (ii) x-ray interactions and data capture/conversion, (iii) acquisition/creation of the CT image, and (iv) operational details of a modern multislice CT scanner integrated with a PET scanner. Advances in PET technology have lead to widespread applications in diagnostic imaging and oncologic staging of.
  2. Principles of X-Ray Imaging 1 Already a few weeks after the discovery of X-rays in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad R€ontgen the first medical images with photographic plates and fluorescent screens were made. This was the origin of projection radiography and fluoroscopy. The greatest steps forward in X-ray diagnostic radiolog
  3. X-ray Astronomy, X-Ray Astronomy At the high-energy end of the electromagnetic spectrum , x rays provide a unique window on some of the hottest and most violent objec Radiology , Radiology is a branch of medical science in which various forms of radiant energy are used to diagnose and treat disorders and diseases
  4. Production of X-RAYS using X-RAY Tube. Sangeetha Prabhu 1, Divya Kumari Naveen 1, Sandhya Bangera 1 and B Subrahmanya Bhat 2. Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Volume 1712, International Conference On Computational Physics in Emerging Technologies (ICCPET) 2020 1 August 2020, Mangalore, India Citation Sangeetha Prabhu et al 2020 J. Phys.: Conf.
  5. A typical X-ray spectrum from a copper target is shown below: The loss of energy of the electrons by collision with the atoms usually takes place via multiple events. The result is the production of a continuous spectrum of X-rays known as white radiation

An X-ray tube is a vacuum tube that converts electrical input power into X-rays. The availability of this controllable source of X-rays created the field of radiography, the imaging of partly opaque objects with penetrating radiation.In contrast to other sources of ionizing radiation, X-rays are only produced as long as the X-ray tube is energized This type of x-ray is often referred to as bremsstrahlung or braking radiation. For a given source of electrons, a continuous spectrum of bremsstrahlung will be produced up to the maximum energy of the electrons. X-rays are produced whenever fast moving electrons are decelerated, not just in x-ray tubes This is called X-ray diffraction or X-ray crystallography, and, thanks to British scientist Rosalind Franklin, it played a hugely important part in the discovery of DNA's structure in the 1950s. Astronomy. Photo: X-ray image of the Sun produced by the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT). Photo courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA-GSFC) important to note that the metal used for producing x-rays must not only have good thermal qualities, it must also be able to produce x-rays easily. To ensure that the projectile electrons have an excellent probability of x-ray production, the atoms must have a high atomic density or a good concentration of electrons. Tungsten is a X-Rays are defined as a weightless package of pure energy (Photon) that are without electrical charge and that travel in waves along a straight line with a specific frequency and speed. X-rays were first produced by Sir William Morgan unknowingly while conducting one of his experiments. The first dentist to practice radiography in Dentistry was by [&helli

X-ray emission spectra of solids and molecules are methods of measuring electronic structure of matter [1-5].The x-ray emission spectra reflect the occupied electronic structure as shown in Fig. 1, while the x-ray absorption spectra reflect the unoccupied molecular orbitals (MO).These x-ray spectra represent local (L) and partial (P) electron density of states (DOS) because of the electric. X-Ray Production est un label de musique indépendant à Paris constitué de 4 pôles: la production, l'édition, le spectacle et la vente en ligne (vinyles, cds, vêtements ). Notre catalogue se compose de L'Entourloop, Manudigital, La Yegros, Asian Dub Foundation, The Architect et bien d'autres

X-Ray Production is a french independant record label in Paris organised into 4 business units: production, publising, show and online sale (vinyls, cds, clothing ). Our artists roster : L'Entourloop, Manudigital, La Yegros, Asian Dub Foundation, The Architect et many more X-ray production typically involves bombarding a metal target in an x-ray tube with high speed electrons which have been accelerated by tens to hundreds of kilovolts of potential. The bombarding electrons can eject electrons from the inner shells of the atoms of the metal target Iran needs about 10,000 units of x-ray equipment and this demand can be fully met by domestic production if the necessary support is provided, the director said

Production of X-Rays - FRCR Physics Note

X-radiation is a kind of electromagnetic radiation. X-rays are waves of X-radiation. X-rays have a shorter wavelength, and therefore more energy, than ultraviolet radiation. They have a much shorter wavelength than visible light (the light that we can see). Radiation with shorter wavelengths (more energy) than the X-ray is called Gamma radiation (γ-rays). ). These are all parts of the. The following article will focus on the available inspection solutions integrating X-ray technology and on the known effects regarding quality changes of the API. We will also highlight the responsibilities of the pharmaceutical manufacturers who integrate X-ray inspection units in their production lines. Available X-ray technologies These units have a relatively small capacity for x-ray production (Fig. 2-4). As shown in Figure 2-5, the tungsten target area of the stationary anode is embedded on a cylinder of copper, with the face of the target angled down toward the window. The angle may range from 15 to 23 degrees, altering the focal spot size X-rays are produced by an X-ray generator, and Gamma radiation is the product of radioactive atoms. An in depth discussion on radiation production can be found in other areas of this site, but will be reviewed briefly in the following sections. Production of X-Rays. There are two different atomic processes that can produce X-ray photons

X-ray radiation is a form of high frequency electromagnetic radiation, also characterized as high energy photon particles, usually called, x-rays. X-rays can be electronically produced when an x-ray tube is turned on and electronically activated. Turning the equipment off stops the production of x-rays. X-ray radiation is the same kind of. The first step in x-ray production is to turn on the machine. (If there is doubt on the part of the x-ray technician concerning the operation of the unit, reference should be made to the operator's manual.) When the unit is turned on, the filament of the cathode is heated by electrical current, causing it to emit electrons (see figure 1-3)..

X-ray Production. When The Exposure Button Is Pressed, The Projectile Electron PPT. Presentation Summary : X-ray Production. When the exposure button is pressed, the projectile electron collide with the atom of the anode target and loose energy X-ray Spectrum X-ray spectrum of Mo at different voltage X-rays are produced when accelerated electrons collide with the target. The loss of energy of the electrons due to impact is manifested as x-rays. X-ray radiation is produced in an x-ray tube. Most of the kinetic energy of the electrons striking the target is converted into heat, less than 1 The instrument used to do this is an x-ray powder diffractometer. It consists of an X-ray tube capable of producing a beam of monochromatic X-rays that can be rotated to produce angles from 0 to 90 o. A powdered mineral sample is placed on a sample stage so that it can be irradiated by the X-ray tube Radiography is a type of x-ray procedure, and it carries the same types of risks as other x-ray procedures. The radiation dose the patient receives varies depending on the individual procedure. production in an x-ray tube C. Increases with both increasing atomic number of the target and increasing electron energy The probability of Bremsstrahlung production is given by ZE/(n+ZE), where Z is the atomic number, E is the energy (in MeV), and n is an empirical constan

Xray, X-ray Of The Human Female Body

X-ray Production - PubMe

X-Ray Protection Accessories. X-Ray protection for health care staff, X-Ray protective gloves, X-Ray Protection for the eyes, X-Ray protection for the patient, storage systems as well as X-Ray protection accessories. Our well-thought out product line allows us to offer you the a technically sophisticated and wide range of models that you can. Inside every C-arm X-ray tube (and any other X-ray tube for that matter) there is a cathode and an anode. The cathode receives incoming electrical current from the machine's generator and emits a beam of electrons onto the anode, where we'll focus our attention today thus producing a beam of more uniform intensity over a useful area. •Exact alignment of such a filter is critical X-ray filtration •Unfiltered x-ray beam contains both fluorescence (characteristic of the target) and bremsstrahlung x-rays •The principle result of adding filter is the remova

X RAY PRODUCTION X-rays were discovered by Roentgen in 1895. The nature was unknown and so they were called x-rays They are high energy electromagnetic radiation part of the electromagnetic spectrum ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION Electromagnetic radiation consists of wave Handout #5 Recap: Production of X-rays (inside structure): Brehmstrahlung ; Characteristic X-ray: Typical x-ray spectrum: Interactions of x-rays with tissue 1) Coherent Scattering (Rayleigh scattering) 2) Compton Scattering 3) Photoelectric effec X-ray production High. energy electrons, accelerated by thousands of kilovolts of potential, interact with a metal target in an x-ray tube. X-ray production X-rays. are produced when the electrons are suddenly decelerated upon collision with the metal target (brehmsstrahlung) or braking radiation. If The production of X-ray machines has not been affected. Both President Trump and Secretary of State Pompeo pointed their finger at the Chinese laboratory, but did not provide specific evidence. Pompeo just said that the evidence is huge.. The X-ray inspection system inspects, detects and rejects hazardous foreign objects from your production line. At the same time the system is able to inspect the overall quality by analyzing the content of the packaged product, such as

radiology x-ray production - SlideShar

Indications for x-ray in trauma and Orthopaedics. X-ray examination in trauma is one of the main ways to diagnose damage. Often an x-ray is carried out for patients admitted after an accident, falls from a height and other injuries, as based on these images there is the possibility to quickly make a treatment plan effect in x-ray imaging). 4. Pair Production - the spontaneous creation of an electron/positron pair: In this interaction, photon energy in transferred to mass energy in the electron and positron. Since the rest energy of each is 511 keV, pair production cannot occur fo The recommendations provided are primarily for organizations that are authorized to use X ray generators and other types of radiation sources for such purposes, as well as for radiation protection experts, radiation protection officers and staff of regulatory bodies. The publication may also be of interest to designers and manufacturers of. PRODUCTION OF X RAY (BREMSSTRAHLUNG) in BASIC RADIOPHYSICS. Bremsstrahlung / Continuous xray- यह तब उत्पन्न होता हैं जब कोई तेज गति से गतिमान इलेक्ट्रान नाभिक के साथ परस्पर क्रिया करता हैं. After the discovery of X-rays by Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen in 1895, Richard Seifert senior started already in 1896 with the production of X-ray apparatus and equipment for medical, industrial, and research applications. The production facility Röntgenwerk Rich. Seifert & Co. soon developed to a leading supplier of X-ray equipment

An x-ray system can be installed at the beginning of a process to inspect incoming raw goods, at any stage during the manufacturing processing or at the end of the production line. Using the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) process is the surest way to ensure products are free from contaminants interactions (characteristic x-ray production). A complete the-ory for predicting the photon spectrum emitted from an x-ray tube must therefore take into account the energy and angular distribution of both bremsstrahlung and characteristic x rays produced in the target. The emission spectrum, that is, the x X-Ray radiation is a form of ionization radiation that is potentially very hazardous. The most intense and therefore dangerous part of the instrument is the path of the incident X-ray beam. Thus care should always be exercised to know the expected path of the incident beam. Scattered radiation poses a much smaller health risk to the researcher. Electron Acceleration for X-ray Production Using Paired Pyroelectric Crystals Jeffrey Geuther, Yaron Danon, Frank Saglime, Bryndol Sones Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180, geuthj@rpi.edu Abstract - The exposure of pyroelectric crystals to a heating cycle in near-vacuum conditions has been shown to be a viable method of producing x-rays Containing chapter contributions from over 130 experts, this unique publication is the first handbook dedicated to the physics and technology of X-ray imaging, offering extensive coverage of the field. This highly comprehensive work is edited by one of the world's leading experts in X-ray imaging physics and technology and has been created with guidance from a Scientific Board containing.

Also included is a description of the Crookes tube which can be used for x-ray production. In a discussion first published in the Electrical World, Elihu T describes an improved design for an x-ray tube which contains concave cathodes which focus the cathode rays onto a metal anode. This design should produce more intense radiation with a. X-ray tube 1) Production 2) Diffraction 3) Detection 4) Interpretation. Detection of Diffracted X-rays by a Diffractometer Photon counter Detector Amplifier C Circle of Diffractometer Recording Focalization Circle Bragg - Brentano Focus Geometry, Cullity. Peak Position d-spacings and lattice parameter

X-ray tube painting photo-plate The Virgin and the Child Workshop of Dirck Bouts Netherland, c. 1420-1475 Oil on wood, 30.5 x 21.6 cm The cradle at the back of the panel appears as grid on the X-radiograph. To improve the image, the spaces in the cradle were filled with a resin with an X-ray opacity similar to that of the wooden cradle Scatter Radiation is a type of secondary radiation that occurs when the useful beam intercepts any object, causing some x-rays to be scattered. During an x-ray or fluoroscopic exam the patient is the most significant source of scatter radiation. Most of a technologists occupational exposure comes from scatter radiation; therefore using safety. X rays that have passed through a body provide a visual image of its interior structure when they strike a photographic plate or a fluorescent screen; the darkness of the shadows produced on the plate or screen depends on the relative opacity of different parts of the body. Photographs made with X rays are known as radiographs or skiagraphs The production of x rays in a target originates from the deceleration of incident electrons in the atomic Coulomb field (bremsstrahlung production), and from the relaxation of ions generated by inner-shell impact ionization and photon interactions (characteristic x-ray production)

X-rays are high energy waves which penetrate through skin and muscle to produce an image of the skeleton on a photographic film possession of an x-ray producing machine subsequent to June 1, 1965, shall register with the Agency prior to acquiring an x-ray machine. (b) Every person possessing an x-ray producing machine shall renew such registration with the agency at such times as the Agency shall deem necessary Abdominal X-ray. Detection of obstruction of the intestine (Ileus) Presence of air in the abdominal organs through abnormal communications. Fluid collection in the abdominal cavity (Ascites. ZEISS BOSELLO systems are made for production! Thanks to their robust design and our high expertise in automation, the systems can be integrated into the production - also into already existing production lines. The Automatic Defects Recognition (ADR) software allows automated X-ray inspection and is suitable for a wide range of applications

Fibrosarcoma of Bone - Pathology - Orthobullets

Explain construction and working of Coolidge tube for production of X-ray. general-science A color television set employs a 25,000 volt electron accelerator to produce the picture and potentially harmful radiation which must be shielded against Diagnostic X-Ray Permits. Diagnostic x-ray system means an x-ray system designed for irradiation of any part of the body for the purpose of diagnosis or visualization. X-ray tube means any electron tube which is designed to be used primarily for the production of x-rays. This program was created to protect the general public, health care.

The frozen food market is booming and with it - the challenge for supermarkets to ensure food is free of contaminants at scale. This is how Sparc is using the latest in X-ray technology to automatically inspect food and increase efficiency in food production lines across the world. Recalls probably top the list of [ Response. The term efficiency, in regards to x-ray production, is defined as the percentage of input electron energy that actually produces output energy as x-ray emissions.¹ Most of the energy from the incident electrons is converted into heat. Looking at diagnostic energies (typically around 100 keV), the efficiency is less than 1% when.

Xray, Lumbar Spine Stock Photos - Image: 4902983Osteogenesis Imperfecta | Allied Medical TrainingXplus - X-ray image enhancement software2012 Lada Xray Concept | Top SpeedX-ray Of Broken Arm Royalty Free Stock Images - ImageDOG BOWEL OBSTRUCTION X-RAY Stock Photography - Image

X-ray production cross sections are affected by both random and systematic uncertainties. Random uncertainties arise from counting statistics, stray radiation, sample non-uniformity and instrumental drift. These uncertainties are different for each measured energy and, therefore, they affect the shape of the cross-sectional curves It surrounds the filament to condense the electrons into a beam of electrons that can be accelerated toward the anode. Without the focusing cup, there is a spread of electrons (caused by electrostatic repulsion) that minimise the efficiency of the x-ray tube because not all the x-rays produced will be emitted 328 - COOLIDGE X-RAY TUBE. ID: 328. Dimensions: 50 × 18 × 18 cm. Spherical glass bulb (purple from radiation damage) with cylindrical stems carrying the electrodes (cathode end broken). The Coolidge Tube, first produced in 1913 by W. Coolidge, is the forerunner of all the types of x-ray tubes in common use today X-ray diffraction (XRD) The crystalline structure and structural properties of the native tapioca starch and CL starch samples were characterized using X-ray diffractometer (Bruker AXS D8 advance model, Germany). Measurements were performed under Cu-Kα radiation (λ = 1.54056 Å) and specific voltage 40 and current as 30 mA

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